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EPPO AESIN
Species Aeschynomene indica
Author L.
Family Fabaceae
Weed Type Broadleaf
General Habit Generally annual but sometimes perennial, 0.3 to 2.5 m tall.
Stem Mostly slender, about 5 mm wide at the base, but sometimes thick and spongy and up to 2.5 cm wide, pubescent with rather sparse, tubercular-based, sometimes glandular hairs.
Leaf Leaves sometimes sensitive, 16- to 50- (sometimes 70) foliate. Leaflets linear-oblong, 0.3 to 1.3 cm long, 1 to 3 mm wide, rounded and mucronate at the apex, obliquely rounded at the base, entire or very finely serrulate, glabrous. Stipules elliptic-lanceolate, straight, spurred, 0.3 to 1.5 cm long, 1 to 3.5 mm wide, deciduous.
Inflorescence Inflorescences leaf opposed or axillary, one- to six-flowered. Rachis 1.5 to 6 cm long. Peduncle 0.8 to 2.1 cm long. Pedicel 1 to 2 and finally up to 8 cm long. Calyx glabrous, two lipped, the lips oblong, 4 to 6 mm long, 2 to 3 mm wide. Standard yellow or whitish, mostly lined and suffused with red outside, or purplish, elliptic, 0.7 to 1 cm long, 4 to 7 mm wide. Wings and keel greenish white or pale yellow, the petals of the keel not laciniate.
Fruit Pod linear, straight or slightly curved, 2.4 to 4.8 cm long excluding the 6 to 9 mm stipe, 5 to 13 jointed, one suture more or less straight, the other slightly constructed between the articles. Articles oblong, 3 to 5 mm long and as wide, compressed with sparse, short, tubercular-based hairs, central part rose.
Seed Seed dark olive-black or brownish, oblong, slightly beaked near the eccentric small hilum, 2.8 x 2.55 mm, 1.3 to 1.8 mm thick (Gillett, Polhill and Verdcourt, 1971).
Biology Annual plant multiplying by seed.
Ecology Mostly found in wet and muddy places on flood plains, in seasonal swamps and around the margins of more permanent swamps into quite dry country. Often growing together with Sesbania spp. and Acacia nilotica subsp. tomentosa. In Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, it is among the pioneering annuals that colonize paddy fields when cultivation stops. It occurs from sea level to 1500 m altitude. Occurring on deep clay soils subject to flooding and to water logging.
World Distribution Widespread in tropical Africa from Senegal to Ethiopia and from northern Somalia southward to the Transvaal and Namibia, throughout the South Sahelian and Sudanian ecozones and also on Sao Tome and Madagascar. Widespread also in tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia and North America. In Australia, it occurs as far south as northern New South Wales and the northern parts of the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. The North American material is often identified as A. evenia. However, Rudd (1959) states that the two are distinct species, both of which occur in North America.
Local weediness Senegal: Rare but abondant when present.
Global control Management options: http://www.afroweeds.org/network/pg/file/read/1902/general-guidelines-for-weed-management-in-lowland-rice
Uses Sometimes utilized as green manure; could be utilized as a fodder crop in rotation with rice, or to make use of water logged depressions for biomass production of green manure.
Reference Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2011. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource). Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295. Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152. Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp. Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai'i. 146 pp. Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp. ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2010. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database. MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p. Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp. National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1984. Voucher specimen #PTBG37902(Ching-I Peng 7022). Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp. Stone, Benjamin C. 1970. The flora of Guam. Micronesica 6:1-659. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2010. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database. Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp. Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Island s. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.
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